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Feed Additives FAQs

Clariant Image Feed Additives 092020

Feed Additives

FAQ's - Frequently asked questions

According to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, 25% of feed worldwide is contaminated with different mycotoxins.

Clariant TOXISORB™ product line is a range of specially developed feed additives that help bind fungal mycotoxins and help prevent them from being resorbed into animals bodies, where they may produce damaging effects. FIXAT™ Optimum is a product which can significantly reduce the threat of poisonous Aflatoxins in feed.

If you want to learn more about our Feed Additives products, please find below our Frequently asked Questions.

ABOUT PRODUCT PORTFOLIO

 

Q.

Which Feed Additive products does Clariant offer?

A.

FIXAT Optimum 1m558

TOXISORB Classic 1m558i

TOXISORB Premium 1m558i

Bionit 1m558i

FIXAT 1m558i

ABOUT MYCOTOXINS IN ANIMAL FEED

  

Q.

What are mycotoxins?

A.

Mycotoxins are compounds produced as secondary metabolites of toxigenic strains of several fungal genera and species, many of which have been strongly implicated as chemical progenitors of toxicity in man and animals. They are considered unavoidable contaminants in foods that agronomic technology has not yet advanced to the point where pre-harvest infection of susceptible crops can be completely eliminated.

 

Q.

What are the most common mycotoxins?

A.

The main mycotoxin classes include: Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), trichothecenes [Deoxynivalenol (DON), T-2 Toxin (T-2)], Fumonisin B1 (FB1), Ochratoxin A (OTA), Zearalenone (ZEN), and Ergot Alkaloids. They are produced mainly by three genera of fungi which include: Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Fusarium.

 

Q.

What are the permitted levels of mycotoxins in feed?

A.

The occurrence of mycotoxins in foods and feeds is not entirely avoidable. Therefore, small amounts of these contaminants may be legally permitted, provided the amounts involved are not considered injurious to human and animal health. The worldwide occurrence of mycotoxins in foods and feeds has been recognized by the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) for many years. Many countries worldwide have established Food laws that impose limits on the concentrations of specific mycotoxins in foods. Analytical data obtained from food monitoring programs are coupled with available toxicological data and are used for making science-based risk assessment that can serve as a basis for establishing a particular regulatory level.

 

Q.

How do I know that my feed is contaminated?

A.

The mycotoxin concentration of a bulk lot is usually estimated by measuring the concentration of relevant mycotoxins in a small portion of the lot or a sample taken from the lot. The mycotoxin concentration in the bulk lot is assumed to be the same as the measured mycotoxin in the sample. Mycotoxins are not distributed homogeneously. So it is very important to analyze a representative sample. The sampling procedure influences the result considerably.

 

Q.

How often should I monitor my grain/feed for mycotoxins?

A.

It is important to evaluate testing requirements and assess specific needs for testing. Each company’s needs vary. Assess the kinds of test (specificity, sensitivity, ease of method, quantitative or screening, cost), the mycotoxins that need to be assessed, number of samples per day, and location where the test is to be done.

 

Q.

How can I analyze mycotoxins?

A.

Mycotoxins can be detected with chromatographic (HPLC, LC-MS, GC-MS) and ELISA techniques. The chromatographic tests are more sensitive but also more sophisticated in equipment and carrying out. ELISA tests are easy to handle and deliver adequately exact results to judge the mycotoxin contamination of feeds.

 

Q.

Which ELISA kits should I use?

A.

Both the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the European Union (EU) have approved several commercially available immunological test kits and rapid methods (and specifications) for the analysis of mycotoxins. Key suppliers are:

• Neogen

• R-Biopharm

• Vicam

 

Q.

Do you recommend the usage of mold inhibitors?

A.

Yes. Although the mold inhibitor will not destroy the mycotoxins, it will stop the growth of mold producing them.

 

Q.

Can mycotoxins be destroyed by high temperature?

A.

Only very high temperatures are able to destroy mycotoxins therefore they are usually considered as thermal stable. However, some nutrients are also destroyed at high temperatures.

ABOUT MYCOTOXICOSIS IN ANIMALS

  

Q.

How common are mycotoxins?

A.

Mycotoxins are considered unavoidable contaminants in foods and feeds in that agronomic technology has not yet advanced to the point where pre-harvest infection of susceptible crops can be completely eliminated. The combined effects of the feed and food losses due to mycotoxins decrease the supply and raise the price of various farm commodities.

 

Q.

Are all species affected equally?

A.

No. There are a multiplicity of factors affecting the toxic effects of a specific mycotoxin, which include:

Breed, Sex, Age, Environment, nutritional status and other toxic entities that can affect intoxification

 

Q.

What are the clinical signs of main mycotoxins affecting farm animals?

A.

Fungal toxins produce a wide range of injurious effects in farm animals. Some of the clinical signs are presented in the table below:

 

 

 

 

Mycotoxin

Fungi

Clinical Signs

Aflatoxin

Aspergillus flavus and

parasiticus

  • Carcinogenesis
  • Mutagenesis
  • Immunessupression
  • Teratogenesis
  • Hepatotoxicity
  • Impaired animal performance

Fumonisin

 

Fusarium moniliforme

  • Equine leukoencephalomalacia
  • Porcine pulmonary edema

Trichotecenes

Fusarium

  • Necrose and inflammation – oral cavity
  • Immunessupression
  • Vomits and diarrhea

Zearalenone

Fusarium roseum

  • Hyperestrogenism:
    • Vulva edema
    • Enlarged mammary glands
    • Decreased litter size

Ochratoxin

Aspergillus

  • Nephotoxicity
  • Hepatotoxicity
  • Imunessupression
  • Impaired animal performance

 


 

Q.

What are the effects of mycotoxins on the reproductive organs?

A.

Several mycotoxins have shown to cause reproductive effects:

ZEARALENONE: the major effects are estrogenic and primarily involve the urogenital system. Swine are the most commonly affected animals. Hyperstrogenism in female swine may be manifested as swelling of the vulva and enlargement of mammary glands, especially in prepubescent gilts.

ERGOT ALKALOIDS: abortion may be observed after ergot ingestion, depending on species affected. In horses, the endophyte of tall fescue is the causative agent for reproductive abnormalities in pregnant mares. Increased gestational length, agalactia, foal and mare mortality, toughened and thickened placentas, weak and dysmature foals, and decreased serum prolactin and progesterone levels occur in mares consuming endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures.

AFLATOXIN B1: has been associated with bovine abortions and may adversely affect nursing neonates through exposure to metabolites in milk.

T-2 TOXIN: associated with decreased egg production. The T-2 toxin consumption by breeding sows has caused drastically decreased conception rates and weak piglets, with decreased litter sizes in those sows conceiving.

 

Q.

Do mycotoxins affect people working in feed mills or farms?

A.

Yes. Reports on human mycotoxicosis have been mostly associated with oral ingestion of the toxin. However, inhalation was recognized as another important route of entry. Thus, mycotoxins have a potential to affect people working in feed mills or farms. The airborne nature of either ochratoxin or particles laden with this mycotoxin is now considered a potential risk for human exposure (Richard et al., 1999). Stachybotryotoxicoses is another illness associated with toxin inhalation. Hay dust Stachybotrys-contaminated is inhaled and it causes inflammation of the nose, fever, chest pain, and leucopenia.

 

ABOUT PRODUCT EFFICIENCY

  

Q.

What is the difference between Clariant’s mycotoxin adsorbents?

A.

The main difference between TOXISORB® Classic, FIXAT Optimum and TOXISORB® Premium is the specific binding efficiency towards different mycotoxins. TOXISORB® Classic and FIXAT Optimum efficiently bind Aflatoxins and Ergot Alkaloids, while TOXISORB® Premium renders both polar and non polar mycotoxins, like Zearalenone, Aflatoxin, Ochratoxin, T-2 Toxin, and Fumonisin innoxiously. Bionit and FIXAT are used as binders and anticaking agents.

 

Q.

Is there a difference in dosage depending on species and stage? What is the recommended dosage for TOXISORB® Classic, FIXAT Optimum and TOXISORB® Premium?

A.

Yes. The recommended concentration in feed depends on several factors, such as:

Animal species and age, type of Mycotoxin(s), Contamination level(s)

 

 

 

Contamination level

Recommended dosage

Low contamination level, preventive use

0.5-1 kg / ton

Medium contamination level, mix of mycotoxins

1-3 kg / ton

High contamination level, critical toxin/ animal combination

3-4 kg / ton

 

 

Q.

Are TOXISORB® Classic, FIXAT Optimum and TOXISORB® Premium used preventively or therapeutically?

A.

TOXISORB® Classic, FIXAT Optimum and TOXISORB® Premium act by binding the mycotoxins efficiently in the gastro-intestinal tract more in a prophylactic rather than in a therapeutic manner, avoiding the toxic effects for livestock and carryover of the toxins to animal products.

 

Q.

What is adsorption efficiency? How do you measure the adsorption efficiency?

A.

In vitro tests are done trying to simulate most of the physiological conditions of the animal GI tract. Then, when conducting such a test, the first measurement that is made is the adsorption under acid pH (simulating stomach environment). The second measurement is the desorption under neutral or basic pH (simulating intestinal environment). Finally, adsorption efficiency is calculated by subtracting the desorption measurement from the adsorption value:

% adsorption efficiency = % adsorption - % desorption

 

Q.

Do TOXISORB® Classic, FIXAT Optimum and TOXISORB® Premium work on any type of feed?

A.

Yes, our products work on any type of feed. Feed formulation and different ingredients will not interfere with the mode of action of both products.

 

Q.

Do TOXISORB® Classic, FIXAT Optimum and TOXISORB® Premium adsorb the mycotoxins from the grain or in the digestive system?

A.

Yes, our products act by binding the mycotoxins efficiently in the gastro-intestinal tract, avoiding the toxic effects for livestock and carryover of the toxins to animal products.

 

Q.

How long does the adsorbent stay active?

A.

An adsorbent will keep its activity as long as binding sites are still available. Then, saturation of these sites will limit the binding capacity of an adsorbent.

 

Q.

Can TOXISORB® Classic, FIXAT Optimum and TOXISORB® Premium be used in aquaculture?

A.

Yes, our products are used successfully in this application.

 

Q.

Do TOXISORB® Classic, FIXAT Optimum and TOXISORB® Premium work in granulated feed?

A.

Yes. Feed manufacturing processes such as pelletizing do not interfere with our product’s mode of action.

 

Q.

Can TOXISORB® Classic, FIXAT Optimum or TOXISORB® Premium control molds?

A.

No. Our products are mycotoxin binders. They adsorb mycotoxins efficiently in the GI tract, avoiding the toxic effects for livestock and carryover of the toxins to animal products. However, they can indirectly control mold growth. TOXISORB® Classic, FIXAT Optimum and TOXISORB® Premium reduce water activity, and this condition limits growth for certain mold species.

 

Q.

Would you recommend the usage of TOXISORB® Classic, FIXAT Optimum and TOXISORB® Premium without having determined the levels of mycotoxins?

A.

Yes. Our products are also recommended for preventive usage, and the concentration indicated in this case should be 0.5 to 1 kg/ ton feed.

 

Q.

How long should a treatment last?

A.

Animals should be fed TOXISORB® Classic, FIXAT Optimum or TOXISORB® Premium as long as contaminated or suspicious feed is being fed. There is no need to withdraw our products from the feed before slaughtering. TOXISORB® Classic, FIXAT Optimum and TOXISORB® Premium can be added to animal feed from day 1 till slaughter day.

 

Q.

At what age can you start adding TOXISORB® Classic and TOXISORB® Premium?

A.

From day 1 or since animal starts being fed dry feed.

 

Q.

TOXISORB® Premium is known as multi-layer mycotoxins adsorbent. What does this mean?

A.

TOXISORB® Premium is characterized by a high and selective surface containing hydrophilic and hydrophobic areas. Therefore TOXISORB® Premium shows mycotoxin adsorption efficiency towards Aflatoxin, Zearalenone, Fumonisin, Ochratoxin and T-2 Toxin. TOXISORB® Premium consists of a unique mineral composition with extraordinary surface properties.

 

Q.

Clariant has many mines all over the world. Are the raw materials designed to TOXISORB® Premium originated from all these mines?

A.

Clariant invests in mining and exploration in order to be able to offer high quality raw clays according to needs of different applications. Clariant has around 60 operative mine sites from where our raw materials are obtained. After analyzing the clay source and evaluating important characteristics, different products can be manufactured. Due to special requirements to the raw materials not all sources are suitable for mycotoxin adsorption. Therefore, one of the main steps in developing our products is the selection of the most suitable raw material for mycotoxin adsorption.

 

Q.

What is the difference among the mycotoxin binders available in the market?

A.

In general mycotoxin binders are based on respectively contain mixtures of:

Bentonite, HSCAS, clay minerals, enzymes, bacteria strains, yeast cell wall, algae extract, mannanoligosaccharides.

The difference is their mode of action. Adsorbents based on Bentonite, HSCAS or other clay minerals adsorb the mycotoxins on their surface. Depending on their mineral composition their efficiency varies.

Products containing enzymes or bacteria strains degrade the mycotoxins.

Ingredients such as yeast cell wall, algae extract or mannanoligosaccharides support the animal’s health to overcome the mycotoxin intoxication,

 

ABOUT PRODUCT SAFETY

  

Q.

Do TOXISORB® Classic, FIXAT Optimum or TOXISORB® Premium adsorb vitamins or other nutrients?

A.

No efficient adsorbent is completely free of side effects. Some Vitamins can be adsorbed to a low extent. Minerals are not bound by TOXISORB® Classic, FIXAT Optimum and TOXISORB® Premium, at the contrary. Some minerals are released by our products.

 

Q.

Are TOXISORB® Classic, FIXAT Optimum and TOXISORB® Premium free of dioxins and heavy metals?

A.

TOXISORB® Classic and TOXISORB® Premium are safe for use in animal feed. They fulfill the strict EU requirements for dioxins and heavy metals. Clariant has an intensive quality management system for raw materials as an important base for high quality finished products. Due to our dioxin monitoring system Clariant ensures high quality products according to legal requirements.

 

Q.

Do TOXISORB® Classic, FIXAT Optimum and TOXISORB® Premium fulfill the requirements of 1060/2013/EC?

A.

Yes, TOXISORB® Classic and TOXISORB® Premium are fulfill the requirements of 1m558i. FIXAT Optimum fulfills the strict requirements of 1m558.

 

Q.

Is there a maximum permitted dosage for TOXISORB® Classic, FIXAT Optimum and TOXISORB® Premium?

A.

Natural sorbents are generally recognized as safe (GRAS) for animal feed at levels of up to 2% (20 kg/ton). The EU Regulation 1060/2013/EC also fixes a maximum dosage of 2%.

 

Q.

What is the LD50 of TOXISORB® Classic, FIXAT Optimum and TOXISORB® Premium?

A.

LD50 Rat > 5000mg/kg.

 

Q.

Are TOXISORB® Classic, FIXAT Optimum and TOXISORB® Premium manufactured under EU regulation?

A.

Yes, TOXISORB® Classic, FIXAT Optimum and TOXISORB® Premium are manufactured in our plants in Spain and Germany. The production plants are registered feed additives producing sites.

 

Q.

Does Clariant have certifications?

A.

Clariant is certified according to FAMI-QS, ISO 9001:2015, ISO 14001:2015 and ISO 45001:2018.

 

ABOUT PRODUCT HANDLING

 

Q.

How should I store TOXISORB® Classic, FIXAT Optimum and TOXISORB® Premium?

A.

To maintain their high performance, both TOXISORB® Classic, FIXAT Optimum and TOXISORB® Premium need to be stored in closed containers and in dry areas. They can be stored in silos and conveyed with compressed air (dry and oil free).

 

Q.

What is the shelf life of TOXISORB® Classic and TOXIOSRB® Premium?

A.

Under above mentioned storage conditions, the shelf life of TOXISORB® Classic, FIXAT Optimum and TOXISORB® Premium is 3 years after packing.

 

Q.

What happens if the material gets wet?

A.

If TOXISORB® Classic, FIXAT Optimum or TOXISORB® Premium get wet, they will generally build clumps that will make the product’s handling complicated. The clumps should be disintegrated before using the product to make sure that the product can be mixed into the feed homogeneously. Nevertheless, its mycotoxin adsorption efficiency in not affected by this.

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